The automotive industry in Turkey and its development
The start of Turkey's auto industry dates back to the early 1960s, with the first efforts to develop and produce the first Turkish-made passenger car.
During the period of industrialization and rapid progress, this key sector has transformed partnerships based on assembling automotive parts into a fully developed industry with significant design potential and capacity. With its commitment to and even surpassing global quality and safety standards, the Turkish automobile industry today has become the most efficient and competitive through its value-added production.
The automotive industry is one of the main locomotives of the manufacturing sector in Turkey: it is one of the main sources of employment in the country, providing employment for more than 400,000 people. It is also one of the largest sources of exports, accounting for 16% of total exports, and three out of every five major exporters work in the automotive industry.
In addition, the automotive sector plays a vital role in transferring superior production, knowledge and technological capabilities to Turkey; 50 of the 137 research and development centers in Turkey have been established by companies in the automotive industry.
The qualified workforce it employs to leverage technology is critical to other important strategic sectors in the country. More than a third of R & D staff in Turkey work in the automotive sector.
Continued development and increased competitiveness of the sector are therefore critical to the sustainable growth of the Turkish economy.
The Turkish government published an official document of the automotive sector strategy in February 2011 in a move to shape the future of the industry. The main objective of the document is to "enhance the global competitive strength of the automotive sector and transform it into a high-tech integrated system that contributes to increasing value added."
The document also sets out the actions necessary to ensure the achievement of this key objective. The main elements of this official strategy include the production of a local car, which is already under consideration. In the coming years, Turkey is to become one of the few countries to own its own brand.
These activities aim to raise R & D, improve design, and brand capabilities of companies, as well as further improvements to existing legislative, administrative and infrastructure systems.
Through this document and related activities, Turkey is not only preparing itself for fierce global competition in the coming years, but it is also emphasizing its commitments to the sector, which will certainly be felt by investors operating in Turkey.
The range of car manufacturer products in Turkey covers a wide range of small, medium and heavy trucks.
Agricultural investment in Turkey and facilities available to foreign investors
Foreign Investment in Turkey's Agricultural Sector "Constituents and Incentives"
Over the past years, Turkey has made qualitative leapfrogging in the agricultural field with a vibrant economy, and has advanced positions at both the European and global levels. It is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products in Eastern Europe and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
Turkey is a leading country in the production of figs, nuts, raisins, dried apricots, honey, grains, fruits and vegetables, and more than one thousand and six hundred varieties of Turkish agricultural products, invading the markets of 180 countries around the world. :
1. Investment in grain plantations and crops.
2 - Investment in vegetable farms of all kinds.
3 - Investment in fruit plantation, and production of spices.
4 - Investment in flower farms and ornamental plants.
5. Investment in animal farms (raising sheep, cattle, etc.)
It includes the production of meat or dairy products.
6 - Investment in poultry farms, including meat production, and production of eggs ..
7 - Agricultural investment in the production of natural honey.
8. Investment in fisheries fishing establishments.
The financial contribution of the agricultural sector to total GDP increased by 40% from 2002 to 2016, reaching US $ 52.3 billion in 2016.
The foreign investments in the agricultural sector and the purchase of agricultural land in Turkey has increased significantly during the recent period. The country is a fertile environment that attracts foreign investments in the agricultural sector for the following factors:
Climate, abundance of water and multiple sources.
The number of arable land which represents 50% of the Turkish land. Over the past years, the government has rehabilitated about 5 million 600 thousand hectares during the period 2003-2017. It will reclaim 800 thousand hectares during this year while reclaiming 9.7 million hectares during the period 2018-2023.
The availability of human resources, where the agricultural sector attracts about 25% of Turkish labor.
Government support for the agricultural sector, investment incentives, and opening of foreign investment to benefit from foreign capital in the continuation of the development of agricultural production, in addition to the size and openness of the market.
The Foreign Investments Act guarantees equality in the treatment of all investors without discrimination between international and domestic investors, as well as enabling all international investors to enter Turkey without having to obtain an initial license application, freely transferring profits, entering and owning the real estate market, Property, as well as expatriate employment.
IPARD encourages the authorities to invest agricultural land to exploit vast areas of arable land, with fertile land, abundant water and facilities.
It also provides significant investment opportunities in agricultural secondary sectors such as commercial agribusiness, fruit and vegetable packing, animal feed, livestock, poultry, dairy products, functional foods, aquaculture, and auxiliary factors such as cold chain, irrigation and fertilizers.
Government support in these projects is a material return paid to the investor for the establishment of the project. The following general conditions and requirements must be met for the implementation of the subsidy program:
The establishment of a regular limited company with a capital of not less than LE 100,000 and the registration of the project on behalf of the company. Government approval will not be obtained if the project is not registered on behalf of the company.
Purchase of agricultural land area of ??10,000 square meters, and registered on behalf of the company, note that the least area within the program of government support is 10 acres and more, and must be the location of land within the cities defined by the state.
Conduct a feasibility study for the project, approved by consulting offices within a period of five years, to complete the application for the government support program.
There are some work required to implement the project, including:
Extend the power cable from the main station to the ground site on which the project is built.
Extension of water lines / drilling of underground wells within the boundaries of the land.
The above items are covered by the government subsidy program at a rate of 70% based on the invoices submitted to the state and the expenditure should not exceed 1,000,000 Turkish lira.
GCC nationals are prominent among foreign investors in the Turkish agricultural sector, with investments in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain increasing
The sales of agricultural land to foreigners are concentrated in the governorates of Mugla, Nivezhir, Istanbul, Djinn Qal'a, Bursa, Burdur, Polo, Pelagic, Ankara, Antalya, Aydin, Skaria, Trabzon, Yalova and Yuzgat.
198 million, 962,000 and 54 Dakar (10 Dakar worth 1 hectare) are used for cultivation of cereals and other agricultural crops, and 8 million 41,000 and 439 acres are used as agricultural fields for vegetable production, and 32 million, 378 thousand and 133 acres Of the area in the production of fruits and spices, while using 48 thousand and 909 Dakar in the production of ornamental plants.
Konya is Turkey's largest city in terms of agricultural area, estimated at 19 million and 106 thousand 386 Dakar, while Yalova is the smallest city in Turkey in terms of agricultural area, estimated at 329 thousand and 599 Dakar.
Turkey aims to be among the world's top five producing countries as part of its planned agricultural sector targets by 2023, which includes access to agricultural GDP of $ 150 billion, $ 40 billion for agricultural exports, 8.5 million hectares Of the area of ??irrigable areas (from 5.4 million hectares), and ranked first in the fisheries classification compared with the Union
Learn about the costs and profits of solar power projects in Turkey
The major companies have been quick to invest in the renewable sector with huge amounts of over two billion and farms producing hundreds of megawatts, after Turkey opened the door for investors to invest in open energy in 2011.
The Turkish government would prefer to invest in solar farms beyond 2017 on small and medium-sized farms, in order to support small investors. Therefore, we will limit the economic study to the projects on the 1 MW only, which are granted by the Turkish government and contracted to buy electricity from them.
Costs of establishing solar farms
It is easy to find this type of land and in a small amount, you need a land area of ??about 20 square kilometers and often the price is between The 6 to 15 thousand dollars.
And the second is the licenses where you can not buy land and install solar panels on them and proceed to sell to the government immediately, you need to obtain a license from 16 government departments, and these licenses are companies competent to extract and estimated the total cost to get by 150 thousand, licenses are always expensive in all projects in Turkey, and has a license for 25 years during which it can produce electricity in all profitability.
If you want to expand your small farm, you must obtain more than one license for several farms, each farm with a maximum capacity of one mega and so on.
The solar panels are the black and blue plates, the largest cost in the project, and need about 4,500 panels solar energy to cover the area of ??solar farm 20 kilometers, and the cost of these panels between $ 900 thousand to one million and two hundred thousand dollars, and can be reduced this cost very much , If you import solar panels for your farm from China.
For example, the world's ten largest solar panels are produced in China. Solar panels have a life span of between 25 and 30 years, which is almost the total cost of the project.
The operating costs are the maintenance of the solar farm, which depends on the cleaning of the panels of dust and breakdowns when they occur, a rare occurrence and a farm keeper as well as a technician visits the farm from time to time to verify
On the proceeds of the farm, the sale of the farm produced electricity of the Turkish government at a price contracted with the Ministry of Electricity and Energy, the farms that were established last year, the tariff that was contracted with the Turkish government, is 13 cents per kilowatt, equivalent to a quarter million dollars a year, At this rate and at the same price and tariff for ten years, the duration of the contract of purchase with the government and can be renewed in the event of termination.
As for the farms established this year, the tariff has dropped to 10 cents per kilowatt, which means that annual profits will be about $ 200,000.
Although the Turkish government has reduced the purchase price for electricity this year, however, renewable energy projects remain excellent projects for investors. The capital is recovered within five to six years
This is a very good number compared to other projects whose capital is recovered over a period of more than ten years, such as buying and renting houses. For example, if you save on construction costs, you can recover the capital for the project within a period not exceeding three years.
With regard to the future of renewable energy projects in the long term, Turkey aspires to raise investment in renewable energy to 110 billion dollars in 2023 instead of current investments estimated at 35 billion dollars, and Turkey does not have natural resources of oil and gas, according to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and there is originally The state is generally convinced that oil and non-renewable energy resources will not last long before countries begin to fight over them.
Therefore, Turkey prefers to produce its energy in perpetual and endless ways, so that the sun's rays will not stop shining on this earth, nor will the air stop blowing on it.